Juice produced from apples
Apple juice is a fruit juice made by maceration and pressing of an apple. The resulting extruded juice can be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal purification to remove the starch and pectin, which contains fine particles in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging in containers of glass, metal or aseptic processing systems, or further treated by dehydration processes until a concentrate.
Due to the complex and expensive equipment required to extract and purify juice from apples in large quantities, apple juice is normally produced commercially. In the United States, unfiltered fresh apple juice is made by smaller operations in areas with a high apple production, in the form of non-certified apple cider. Apple juice is one of the most common fruit juices in the world, with world production led by China, Poland, the United States and Germany.(1)
Apples used for apple juice are usually harvested between September and mid-November in the northern hemisphere and between February to mid-April in the southern hemisphere. A common cultivar for apple juice is the McIntosh. About two medium-sized McIntosh apples produce approximately 200 milliliters (7.0 imp fl oz; 6.8 US fl oz) of juice. After the apples have been picked, they are washed and transported to the processing facility. The apples are then immediately pressed and pressed to prevent spoilage.(2) Depending on the company and the end product, the apples can be processed in different ways before they are pressed. Apple juice is then filtered, with the amount of solid particles partially determining the difference between apple juice and apple cider. In cases where the apple juice is treated enzymatically, the typical class of enzymes used are pectinases.(3)
Vitamin C is sometimes added by enrichment, because the content is variable,(4) and much of it is lost in processing. Vitamin C also helps to prevent oxidation of the product.(quote needed) Other vitamin concentrations are low, but apple juice contains various mineral nutrients, including boron, that can promote healthy bones.(5)
Apple juice has a significant concentration of natural low molecular weight phenols (including chlorogenic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonols) and procyanidins. Apple juice has been shown to reduce oxidative stress on the brains of aging laboratory mice. Research suggests that apple juice increases acetylcholine in the brain, possibly resulting in improved memory.
Although it has some health benefits, apple juice contains a lot of sugar.
|of those sugars||10.4 g||0.85oz|
Proteins and fat are not significant. Like most fruit juices, apple juice contains a similar amount of sugar as raw fruit, but lacks the fiber content.(quote needed)
While Apple juice refers generally to the filtered, pasteurized apple press product, an unfiltered and sometimes unpasteurized version of the juice is commonly known as "apple cider" in the United States and parts of Canada. Some makers of filtered and clarified juice (including carbonated varieties) label this product and sell their product as "apple cider". Legal distinctions are not universal and elusive to be applied.(6)
Elsewhere in the world, particularly in New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom, the simple term cider refers to fermented fruit juice, usually made from apples but also from pears; This alcoholic beverage is known as hard cider in much of North America.
Because apple juice is acidic, usually with a pH of 3.4, it can be pasteurized for less time or at lower temperatures than many other juices. For this purpose, the US Food and Drug Administration recommends the following thermal processing times and temperatures to achieve a 5 log reduction in Cryptosporidium parvum, as this parasite is more heat resistant than E.coli 0157:(7)
- 160 ° F (71 ° C) for at least 6 seconds,
- 165 ° F (74 ° C) for a minimum of 2.8 seconds,
- 170 ° F (77 ° C) for at least 1.3 seconds,
- 175 ° F (79 ° C) for at least 0.6 seconds,
- 180 ° F (82 ° C) for at least 0.3 seconds,
Non-pasteurized juice and food-borne diseases(Edit)
From 2000 to 2010, there were more than 1700 cases of illnesses associated with drinking unpasteurized juice and ciders in North America. The pathogens associated with these food-borne diseases include parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The most common pathogens were E. coli 0157 and 0111, Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, Clostridium botulinumand Hepatitis A. Pathogens can be spread in a number of ways, such as contamination where the fruit is grown, transported in contaminated containers, or due to poor handling and washing.(8)
Fresh apple juice requires cooling. Sealed bottles of canned apple juice can be stored in a dark, cool place, such as a pantry or cupboard, to delay the breakdown of the product.(9) The appearance, texture or taste of the juice can change over time.
Once the juice package has been opened, or if it is not sealed and shipped without refrigeration by the manufacturer, it must be properly resealed and cooled to prevent contamination by microorganisms such as bacteria.(10) The ideal storage temperature for apple juice is between 0 ° C (32 ° F) and 4 ° C (39 ° F).