The health benefits of pomegranate

Many Prospective and Epidemiological Studies Revealed High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Disease3, some cancers25 and other chronic diseases12.26.

The presence of antioxidants in fruits and vegetables may play a role in these protective effects.

A pomegranate juice against cardiovascular disease.

Several studies have shown that regular consumption of pomegranate juice could prevent certain risk factors from cardiovascular illnesses. A clinical study has shown a decrease in atherosclerotic lesions, following the consumption of pomegranate juice10. In people with previous coronary heart disease, pomegranate juice consumption has improved blood circulation in the arteries11. In diabetic patients with high levels of blood lipids, pomegranate juice caused a decrease in total cholesterol and "bad" cholesterol (LDL)12. This beneficial effect, however, has been observed only in people with high cholesterol12, not in healthy subjects8.

Pomegranate juice consumption may also decrease blood pressure in subjects with high blood pressure16. Pomegranate juice could even improve the endothelial function (ie, health or elasticity of blood vessels) in adolescents with metabolic syndrome. However, a diet rich in antioxidants, obtained by other types of juice or fresh fruits and vegetables, could have the same effect15.

The virtues of pomegranate against certain cancers

In vitro studies suggest that pomegranate juice or pomegranate juice extracts may delay the progression of some cancers, such as prostate cancer17.28, colon cancer1827 and breast cancer19. However, clinical studies will be needed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate juice in humans.
In patients with prostate cancer, daily consumption of pomegranate juice would decrease the growth of cancer cells and increase the resistance of lipids to oxidation2029.

The effects of pomegranate on neurological disorders.

Animal studies reveal that pomegranate juice may have an effect neuroprotective. It would protect the brain in case of birth-related injuries22 and would have beneficial effects on the neurological signs associated with the sickness Alzheimer23. These results will have to be validated in humans and will make it possible to specify the mechanisms of action concerned. Some studies in humans also show promising effects in memory42.

The pomegranate to take care of its joints

Laboratory studies have shown that pomegranate extract can block enzymes that are known to damage joints in people withosteoarthritis 36.37.

A powerful anti-inflammatory

Chronic inflammation is a major driver of many chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and even obesity. Pomegranate has powerful anti-inflammatory properties, which are largely mediated by its antioxidant properties. A study in diabetics demonstrated that drinking 250 ml of pomegranate juice daily for 12 weeks lowered the inflammatory markers of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 by 32% and 30%, respectively38.

Pomegranate to boost sports performance

The pomegranate is rich in food nitrates like beetroot. Dietary nitrates have shown positive effects on performance. In a study involving 19 athletes on a treadmill, 1 gram of pomegranate extract 30 minutes prior to exercise had significantly improved blood flow. This resulted in a delay in the onset of fatigue, and an increase in the effectiveness of exercise. More studies are needed but the effects are promising43.

Other benefits of pomegranate on the body

Preliminary research indicates that the pomegranate may have properties anti-inflammatorys31, antibacterials32 and antivirals33, 34. Its anti-bacterial and antifungal effects could potentially be protective against infections and inflammation of the mouth including gingivitis, periodontitis and dental stomatitis4041.

The nutritional profile of the pomegranate

Nutritional value of the pomegranate

Fresh pomegranate, ½ fruit, 9.5 cm diameter (77 g)

calories

64

protein

1.3 g

carbohydrates

14.5 g

lipids

0.9 g

Dietary fiber

3.1 g

Glycemic load :

Data not available

antioxidant power :

Yes, but accurate data not available

· sources : Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File, 2010.

Pomegranate: an excellent antioxidant

Even though pomegranate seeds contain a high amount antioxidants, the juice contains more724. Indeed, the whole fruit is pressed when the juice is extracted. It is thus enriched with antioxidants present in very large quantities in the white membranes surrounding the seeds.

Among forty fruits (including strawberries, raspberries, blueberries and blackcurrant), the pomegranate is at the top of the list of antioxidants4. The main antioxidants found in pomegranate are flavonoids (especially anthocyanins), the tannins and theacid ellagic5-7. Anthocyanins give the pomegranate its red color. Tannins give a bitter taste to the pomegranate juice and the white membranes that surround the seeds.

The pomegranate also contains punicalagines, which have a powerful antioxidant power and found in the juice and peel of pomegranate. Pomegranate extracts are usually made from the skin, because of its high antioxidant content

The antioxidant activity of pomegranate and its juice would be higher to that of green tea and red wine. Their protective effect would also be stronger than other phenolic-rich beverages, such as blueberry and grape juice, or red wine1314.

According to a study, the consumption of pomegranate juice increase the antioxidant activity of the blood, thereby protecting the blood lipids (eg cholesterol) againstoxidation813. However, the researchers found that the beneficial effects of pomegranate juice could also be attributable to byproducts of intestinal microflora9. According to them, one must be careful before extrapolating these results in humans, since each individual has a different absorption rate and metabolism with the antioxidants of pomegranate juice.9.

Breast cancer and estrogen
Several animal and cell culture studies suggest that pomegranate juice may reduce the risk of breast cancer acting on estrogen receptors and non-estrogen receptors30.

Several studies report that fruits rich in flavonoids, anthocyanins and procyanidins, such as pomegranates, have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. These compounds would act in synergy on different markers, for example in platelets and the vessels blood35. The antioxidants of pomegranate could also participate in the beneficial effects observed on cancer21. However, it has been shown that the beneficial effect of pomegranate juice on cancer cells would be greater than that of antioxidants alone. Despite these promising results, other studies Clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the effects of pomegranate on the prevention or treatment of cancer and cardiovascular disease in humans.

A source of Punic acid

The pomegranate also contains Punic acid which is the main fatty acid in the arils of the pomegranate. It is a type of conjugated linoleic acid with potent biological effects. In a study involving 51 people with high cholesterol and high triglycerides, consumption of 800 milligrams of punic acid-rich pomegranate seed oil per day for 4 weeks significantly lowered triglycerides and improved triglyceride: HDL (good) ratio. cholesterol)39.

Vitamins and minerals

> Vitamins: their functions, the best sources

> Minerals: their functions, the best sources

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</td>
<td>
<p>										Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)</p>
</td>
<td>
<p>										The grenade is a <b>source</b> of vitamin B5.</p>
</td>
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<p>					<img alt=

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

The grenade is a source of vitamin B6.

Source "src =" http://www.passeportsante.net/DocumentsProteus/icones/Source.gif "/></p>
</td>
<td>
<p>										Vitamin C</p>
</td>
<td>
<p>										The grenade is a <b>source</b> of vitamin C.</p>
</td>
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<p>					<img alt=

Copper

The grenade is a source of copper.

Health Profile
Research and writing
under the direction of Louise Corneau, Dt.P., M.Sc., Nutritionist, Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University.
(September 2010)

Revision: Audrey Cyr, nutritionist (February 2017)

Recipe ideas for eating more pomegranate

To access other recipes, you can visit the CuisineAZ.com cooking recipes website, which offers, among other things, the following recipes: pomegranate recipes, pomegranate juice, pomegranate jam

Arils (luscious seeds)

  • In the salads. With chewed up or from rocket, raisins and hazelnuts. With some bitter greens (chicory, radicchio, endive) and chestnuts. Sprinkle with a drizzle of lemon juice and olive oil.
  • Add a handful ofarils fresh to a salad of dried fruits including apricots, prunes, grapes, almonds, pistachios, rose or orange blossom water and honey.

with pomegranate

  • Add them to a fruit salad pears or apples, grapes, cherries, apricots, peaches, plums and figs. Season with honey and, if desired, a drizzle of fruity liqueur. The liqueur can be omitted and served with yogurt, cottage cheese or cottage cheese.
  • In the salsa. Mix arils, hot pepper, green onion, pieces of citrus and coriander leaves.
  • In cakes, muffins and other pastries, dried arils can replace raisins.
  • Add some fresh arils to a slice of bread covered with hummus (Chick pea paste).
  • Serve fresh arils with black rice or brown rice and flaked almonds that have been roasted.
  • Slightly income in a little butterThe arils are a great accompaniment to roast meat or enhance a dish of stir-fried vegetables.
  • Serve breast of chicken marinated in orange juice and soy sauce on a bed of raw spinach, garnished with figs and pomegranate arils.
  • Stuff a sweet pepper of dried fruits and nuts, top with a nut sauce and sprinkle with pomegranate seeds.
  • In India, fresh arils complement many vegetarian dishes, especially vegetable curries (potatoes, mushrooms, etc.). As for dried arils, they are used in the composition of spice mixtures, to which they give a pleasant sweet and sour taste.

Juice, syrup and pomegranate molasses

  • In the grout, creams, sherbets and ice creams.
  • Rub one cheesecake pomegranate sauce.
  • Stir in the juice in a vinaigrette and season with oven-roasted beets topped with toasted hazelnuts.
  • Prepare a sauce that includes olive oil, lemon juice, pomegranate molasses, chopped mint and parsley, salt and pepper, and top with a grilled aubergine salad.
  • Because of its wealth in enzymes proteolytic, the juice traditionally serves to make marinate meat or fish.
  • Rice and lentil soup. Sauté onions in clarified butter or oil. Add rice, lentils, turmeric, salt, pepper and water and bring to the boil. Turn the heat down and simmer for about 45 minutes. Add parsley, green onions and pomegranate juice (about 1 cup to 8 cups water) and simmer for 10 to 15 minutes. Garnish with mint leaves and raisins, then serve.
  • Muhammara. This Turkish sauce is composed of grilled peeled red pepper, garlic, onion, chili paste (or a small hot pepper), bread crumbs, ground walnuts, lemon juice, pomegranate molasses (which can be replaced by concentrated juice), yogurt, cumin and salt. Mix in the blender and then rise in sauce by gradually adding olive oil. Serve in dip with pita bread, crackers or raw vegetables.
  • kısır. This Turkish version of tabbouleh is made of bulgur with red pepper, tomato, onion, parsley, mint and some pomegranate juice. It is traditionally served on vine leaves blanched in boiling water.

How to choose and keep a pomegranate?

Choose your pomegranates

Fresh fruit. The ripe fruit emits a metallic sound when struck with the flat of the hand. At equal size, choose the heavier fruits, a sign that they are very juicy. The bark should be smooth, shiny, deep red and free from browning.

Syrup. Read the label carefully to make sure it is a true pomegranate syrup, not corn syrup.

Juice and concentrate. They are now offered in supermarkets.

Dried arils, whole or powdered, and pomegranate molasses. It is found in Middle Eastern or Indian grocery stores.

How to prepare and eat a pomegranate?

Drink the juice in its original packaging
There is nothing to appreciate the pomegranate juice as much as to drink it from the fruit itself. With the hand, roll the pomegranate on a work surface to break up the arils, but without damaging the bark. Then make a hole at the end of the fruit and vacuum the juice with a Straw.

To remove the seeds. With a good knife, remove the cap of the fruit, then cut it into 4 or 5 quarters. Submerge the quarters in a bowl of water and scrape them gently to release all the seeds. These sink to the bottom of the water and just remove all the pieces of white membrane (inedible) that float. Pour into a colander and briefly underwater.

Avoid aluminum pans and ordinary steel knives, which make the fruit more bitter.

To extract the juice. Gently crush the arils in a sieve in a bowl or strain them in a stainless steel masher. They can also be blended and then sieved to extract the juice, or use a juice extractor. To reduce bitterness, it is best to remove the white membrane from the fruit.

Make your own syrup. Boil 2 cups of arils and 2 cups of sugar (or honey). Pass through a tissue to remove the seeds. Keep refrigerated to prevent fermentation.

An average pomegranate gives 1/2 to 3/4 cup ofarils and 1/3 to 1/2 cup of juice.

How to keep the pomegranate?

Fridge. The fresh fruit can be kept for a few weeks or even a few months. The juice can be kept for a few days.

Freezer. Fresh arils keep for 1 year.

keep them dried arils, whole or powdered in a cool, dry place, protected from light.

The little story of the pomegranate

Common names : pomegranate, pomegranate.

Scientific name : Punica granatum.
family: punicacées.

Appeared first in the form Pume grenate in 1175, the term " grenade "Appeared in the French language in 1314. It comes from Latin malum granatum which means "small grain fruit". It is actually a large berry comprising seeds individually surrounded by a red pulp (the arils). The current Latin name punica comes from what the Romans also called the fruit Punicum malum, literally Punic apple By allusion to ancient Phenicia, where large pomegranate orchards were maintained.

With dates, figs, olives and grapes, grenade certainly represents the quintessence of Middle Eastern cuisine. These fruits were probably among the first to be domesticated in this part of the world (more precisely in Iran, it is believed) about 5,000 or 6,000 years ago. Thanks to the resistance of its bark, which makes it a long-lasting fruit and unlikely to be damaged during transport, the pomegranate was, very early in history, one of the staple foods of travelers and caravaneers. Her waterlogged pulp and slightly acidic allowed to quench thirst during the long traverses of the desert. Its seeds thus spread rapidly to the east (Afghanistan, India, China) and to the west (Egypt).

The Moors will introduce it to Spain where, under their influence, it will give its name to the city of Granada. In Mesopotamia, it is the symbol of fertility, because of its many arills, which would amount to 840. In Asia, as well as in Greece and Rome ancient, it has various other meanings in the three great monotheistic religions: nostalgia of the promised land for the Hebrews in exile, a symbol of divine perfections for Christians, an antidote to hatred and envy among Muslims.

Red or white arils?
The juice of the pomegranate is intensely red. In the past, we even made someink. But today we have selected a variety of arils whites, which does not stain fingers, table linen, cutting board …

Today, pomegranate is grown in many tropical and subtropical dry regions of Europe, Africa and Asia, as well as in America, from California to Chile. Long ignored by North American consumers, the grenade is gaining an excellent reputation among gourmets. To this culinary popularity is added the interest it arouses among researchers, who are studying its properties. antioxidants and the role it could play in prevention of various diseases.

In addition to fresh fruit, we find on the market of pomegranate juice (or concentrate) as well as various products flavored with pomegranate: milk, soft drinks or alcoholic drinks, lemonades, desserts. There is also a syrup called " grenadine And another, much thicker, less sweet and more tangy, which is called " pomegranate molasses ". Finally, there are also dried arils, whole or powdered, which are widely used in Indian cuisine, and various specialty products (vinegar and pomegranate wine, sauces, etc.).

There are many varieties of pomegranate, which produce fruits more or less acid or sweet, large or small, and the color of the bark varies from cream to red. In our markets, we know practically only the grenade Wonderful, which is grown on a large scale in California.

Ecology and environment

Irrigate intelligently
In India, the need for food is growing exponentially. Crop irrigation is an increasingly common practice as it increases yields per hectare. However, the massive use of irrigation has resulted in a significant reduction in water supplies in the south of the country.

To counter the problem, we turn to drip irrigation systems (or localized irrigation) that supply water directly to the roots of cultivated plants. This system greatly reduces losses due to evaporation or unintentional irrigation of weeds. Thanks to this system, it is also possible to cut fertilizer intake by around 30%. In the pomegranate orchards where it was established, there was a 98% increase in yield and a 45% decrease in water requirements.

sections Recipe ideas, Choice and conservation, The little story of pomegranate, Ecology and environment.
Research and writing: PasseportSanté.net

Revision: Audrey Cyr, nutritionist (February 2017)

References

Note: Hypertext links to other sites are not updated continuously. It's possible a link become not found. Please use the search tools to find the desired information.

Bibliography

Association of geographical Cafés. The grenade. Cafe-geo.net (Accessed September 13, 2010). www.cafe-geo.net
Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Kaplan M, et al.
Pomegranate juice flavonoids inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation and cardiovascular diseases: studies in atherosclerotic mice and in humans. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2002; 28 (2-3): 49-62. Review.
Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Rosenblat M et al. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic changes to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 May; 71 (5): 1062-76.
Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, et al. Pomegranate Juice Improves Carotid Artery and Lowers Blood Pressure in Patients with Carotid Artery Stenosis. American Botanical Council, 2005; 65: 28-30. Herbalgram.org (Accessed September 13, 2010). cms.herbalgram.org
California Rare Fruit Grovers. Pomegranate. Crfq.org (Accessed September 13, 2010). www.crfg.org
Dauzat Albert, Jean Dubois, Mitterand, Henri. New etymological and historical dictionary, Librairie Larousse, France, 1971.
Encyclopedia Britannica. Pomegranate. Britannica.com (Accessed September 13, 2010). www.britannica.com
Large dictionary of terminology. Grenade. http://w3.granddictionnaire.com
Katzer Gernot. Pomegranate. Katzer's Spice Pages. (Accessed September 13, 2010). www.uni-graz.at
Kiple Denneth F., Ornelas Kriemhild Coneè (Dir.) The Cambridge World History of FoodCambridge University Press, Great Britain, 2000.
Morton, J. Pomegranate. in: Fruits of warm climates. University Purdue. Hort.purdue.edu (Accessed September 13, 2010). www.hort.purdue.edu
Reddy Jini. Pomegranates: the fruity panacea. BBC News. News.bbc.co.uk (Accessed September 13, 2010). http://news.bbc.co.uk
Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File, version 2007. (Accessed September 13, 2010) www.healthcanada.gc.ca
Tannahill Reay. Food in History, Three Rivers Press, USA, 1988.
Toussaint-Samat Maguelonne. Natural and moral history of food, Bordas, France, 1987.
Tsedekinfo. Health. in Sefarad.org (Accessed September 13, 2010). www.sefarad.org

Notes

1. Bazzano LA, Serdula MK, Liu S. Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2003 November; 5 (6): 492-9.
2. JW lamp. Effects of vegetables and fruits. Am J Clin Nutr 1999 September; 70 (3 Suppl): 475S-90S.
3. He FJ, Nowson CA, et al. Increased consumption of a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens 2007; 21: 717-28.

4. Halvorsen BL, Holte K, et al. A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. J Nutr 2002 March; 132 (3): 461-71.
5. Poyrazoglu E, Gökmen V, Artik N. Organic acids and phenolic compounds in pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) grown in Turkey. Journal of food composition and analysis 2002; 15: 567-75.
6. Wang RF, Xie WD, et al. Bioactive compounds from the seeds of Punica granatum (pomegranate). J Nat Prod 2004 December; 67 (12): 2096-8.
7. Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan FA, et al. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. J Agric Food Chem 2000 October; 48 (10): 4581-9.
8. Aviram M, Dornfeld L, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic changes to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 May; 71 (5): 1062-76.
9. Cerda B, Espin JC, et al. The potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice are metabolized into the bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives by the colonic microflora of healthy humans. Eur J Nutr 2004 Aug; 43 (4): 205-20.
10. Aviram M, Rosenblat M, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clin Nutr 2004 June; 23 (3): 423-33.
11. Sumner MD, Elliott-Eller M, et al. Effects of pomegranate juice on myocardial infusion in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2005 September 15; 96 (6): 810-4.
12. Esmaillzadeh A, Tahbaz F, et al. Concentrated pomegranate juice improves lipid profiles in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. J Med Food 2004; 7 (3): 305-8.
13. Aviram M, Dornfeld L, et al. Pomegranate juice flavonoids inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation and cardiovascular diseases: studies in atherosclerotic mice and in humans. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2002; 28 (2-3): 49-62.
14. Ignarro LJ, Byrns RE, et al. Pomegranate juice protects nitric oxide against oxidative destruction and enhances the biological actions of nitric oxide. Nitric Oxide 2006 September; 15 (2): 93-102.
15. Hashemi M, Kelishadi R, et al. Acute and long-term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on vascular reactivity in pediatric metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Young 2010; 20: 73-7.

16. Aviram M, Dornfeld L. Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure. Atherosclerosis 2001 September; 158 (1): 195-8.
17. Malik A, Afaq F, et al. Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 October 11; 102 (41): 14813-8.
18. Seeram NP, Adams LS, et al. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J Nutr Biochem 2005 June; 16 (6): 360-7.
19. Kim ND, Mehta R, et al. Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) for human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2002 February; 71 (3): 203-17.
20. Pantuck AJ, Zomorodian N, Belldegrun AS. Phase-II Study of Pomegranate Juice for Men with Prostate Cancer and PSA. Curr Urol Rep 2006 January; 7 (1): 7.
21. Adams LS, Seeram NP, et al. Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppressor inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 2006 February 8; 54 (3): 980-5.
22. Loren DJ, Seeram NP, et al. Maternal dietary supplementation with pomegranate juice is neuroprotective in an animal model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Pediatr Res 2005 June; 57 (6): 858-64.
23. Hartman RE, Shah A, et al. Pomegranate juice decreases amyloid load and improved behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Dis 2006 September 27.
24. Li Y, Gui C, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract. Food Chemistry 2006; 96: 254-60.

25. Soerjomataram I, Oomen D, et al. Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables and the future of cancer incidence in selected European countries. Eur J Cancer 2010; 46: 2563-80.

26. Harding AH, Wareham NJ, et al. Plasma vitamin C level, fruit and vegetable consumption, and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: the European prospective investigation of cancer – Norfolk prospective study. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 1493-9.

27. Kasimsetty SG, Bialonska D, et al. Colon cancer chemopreventive activities of pomegranate ellagitannins and urolithins. J Agric Food Chem 2010; 58: 2180-7.

28. Adhami VM, Mukhtar H. Antioxidants from green tea and pomegranate for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Mol Biotechnol 2007; 37: 52-7.

29. Pantuck AJ, Zomorodian N, Belldegrun AS. Phase-II Study of Pomegranate Juice for Men with Prostate Cancer and PSA. Curr Urol Rep 2006; 7: 7.

30. Sturgeon SR, Ronnenberg AG. Pomegranate and breast cancer: Possible mechanisms of prevention. Nutr Rev 2010; 68: 122-8.

31. Shukla M, Gupta K, et al. Consumption of hydrolyzable tannins-rich pomegranate extract suppresses inflammation and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition 2008; 24: 733-43.

32. Braga LC, Shupp JW, et al. Pomegranate extract inhibitors Staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent enterotoxin production. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 96: 335-9.

33. Kotwal GJ. Genetic diversity-independent neutralization of pandemic viruses (e.g., HIV), pandemic (e.g. H5N1 strain of influenza) and carcinogenic (e.g., HBV and HCV) viruses and possible agents of bioterrorism (variola) by enveloped virus neutralizing compounds (EVNCs). Vaccinated 2008; 26: 3055-8.

34. Haidari M, Ali M, CS Ward, III, Madjid M. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) purified polyphenol extract inhibitors influenza virus and has a synergistic effect with oseltamivir. Phytomedicine 2009; 16: 1127-1136.

35. Chong MF, Macdonald R, Lovegrove JA. Fruit polyphenols and CVD risk: a review of human intervention studies. Br J Nutr 2010; 104 Suppl 3: S28-S39.

36. Rasheed Z, Akhtar N, Haqqi TM. Pomegranate extract inhibits interleukin-1β-induced activation of MKK-3, p38α-MAPK and transcription factor RUNX-2 in human chondrocyte osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010; 12 (5): R195.

37. Ahmed S, Wang N, Hafeez BB, Cheruvu VK, Haqqi TM. Punica granatum L. extract inhibited IL-1beta-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases by inhibiting the activation of MAP kinases and NF-kappaB in human chondrocytes in vitro. J Nutr. 2005 Sep; 135 (9): 2096-102.

38. Sohrab G, Nasrollahzadeh J, Zand H, Amiri Z, Tohidi M, Kimiagar M. Effects of pomegranate juice on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Res Med Sci. 2014 Mar; 19 (3): 215-20.

39. Mirmiran P, Fazeli MR, Asghari G, Shafiee A, Azizi. Effect of pomegranate seed oil on hyperlipidaemic subjects: double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug; 104 (3): 402-6.

40. Sh Abdollahzadeh, RY. Mashouf, H. Mortazavi, MH. Moghaddam, N. Roozbahani, and M. Vahedi. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Punic Granatum Peel Extracts Against Oral Pathogens. J Dent (Tehran). Winter 2011; 8 (1): 1-6.

41. Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio TM, Sampaio FC, Higino JS. Use of Punica granatum as antifungal agents against candidosis associated with denture stomatitis. Mycoses. 2003 Jun; 46 (5-6): 192-6.

42. Bookheimer SY, Renner BA, Ekstrom A, Li Z, Henning SM, Brown JA, Jones M, Moody T, Small GW. Pomegranate juice increases memory and FMRI activity in middle-aged and older adults with mild memory complaints. Evid Based Complement Alternate Med. 2013; 2013: 946298.

43. Eric T. Trexler, Abbie E. Smith-Ryan, Malia N. Melvin, Erica J. Roelofs, and Hailee L. Wingfielda. The effects of pomegranate extract on blood flow and running time to exhaustion. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Sep; 39 (9): 1038-1042.

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